Financial statements prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) provide investors, analysts, and other users with a defined basis for conducting financial analysis and comparison among different entities. IOSCO recognises that in addition to GAAP based financial statements, issuers also convey financial information using financial measures other than those that are specified, defined or determined by GAAP, commonly referred to as non-GAAP financial measures or alternative performance measures. Non-GAAP financial measures can be useful to issuers and investors because they can provide additional insight into an issuer’s financial performance, financial condition and/or cash flow. The use of nonGAAP financial measures also can provide issuers with flexibility in communicating useful, entityspecific information. Problems can arise, however, when non-GAAP financial measures are presented inconsistently, defined inadequately, or obscure financial results determined in accordance with GAAP. Furthermore, non-GAAP financial measures typically lack a standardised meaning and, if so, are generally not comparable from one issuer to the next.