Financial intermediation in emerging market economies (EMEs) has been transformed over the past decade: a higher volume of bond financing has gone hand-in-hand with a growing internationalization of financial markets and significant changes to the balance sheets of banks. The 2015 Deputy Governor meeting examined three interrelated aspects of the new forms of financial intermediation in EMEs: (a) the role of banks; (b) the role of debt securities markets; and (c) implications of recent changes in financial intermediation for monetary policy.
One conclusion is that greater access of households to bank credit and of EME corporations to domestic and external bond markets is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it has helped foster financial development, diversifying funding sources and reducing credit risk concentration. On the other hand, it has also been accompanied by increased risks and vulnerabilities – as the financial market turbulences of 2015 illustrated. Domestic bond markets now react more strongly to global forces. Larger foreign currency debt has made many companies more vulnerable to exchange rate shocks. Credit cycles have also become more pronounced. These developments raise questions about the appropriate instruments for EME monetary authorities as they seek to contain monetary and financial stability risks.